Increasing health care expenditures are taxing the sustainability of the health care system. Physicians should be prepared to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care. Conclusions: Research on educating physicians to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care suggests that learning by practicing physicians, resident physicians, and medical students is promoted by combining specific knowledge transmission, reflective practice, and a supportive environment. These factors should be considered when educational interventions are being developed.

Lorette A. Stammen, MD; Renée E. Stalmeijer, MSc, PhD; Emma Paternotte, MD; Andrea Oudkerk Pool, MSc; ErikW. Driessen, MSc, PhD; Fedde Scheele,MD, PhD; Laurents P. S. Stassen, MD, PhD