Defensive Medicine Among High-Risk Specialist Physicians in a Volatile Malpractice Environment

Defensive medecine is a deviation from sound medical practice that is induced primarily by a threat of liability. It is highly prevalent among physicians in Pennsylvania who pay the most for liability insurance, with potentially serious implications for cost, access, and both technical and interpersonal quality of care.

David M. Studdert, LLB, ScD, MPH Michelle M. Mello, JD, PhD, MPhil William M. Sage, MD, JD Catherine M. DesRoches, DrPH Jordon Peugh, MA Kinga Zapert, PhD Troyen A. Brennan, MD, JD, MPH